Journal Articles


Writing and publishing target research is core to the mission of NSF International’s research and development group, the NSF Applied Research Center (ARC). The publications and presentations authored by ARC scientists support our mission in these public health sectors:

  • Water safety
  • Food safety
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Metabolic fate/PBPK
  • Genetic toxicology
  • Epidemiology/exposure assessment
  • Risk assessment
  • Microbial control
  • Environmental and general microbiology
  • Industrial microbiology

If you are interested in obtaining a manuscript reprint or copy of a certain presentation, please email

Water Safety
  • Donofrio RS, Saha R, Saha N, Andrew R, Bagley ST. 2012. Production of safe drinking water: risks, challenges and approaches for evaluating water treatment systems. Feature Article in Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology News.
  • Donofrio, R.S, R. Saha, L. Bestervelt and S.T. Bagley.  2010.  Selective Enumeration Strategies for Brevundimonas diminuta from Drinking Water.  Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 37:407-417 DOI 10.1007/.10295-010-0689-6
  • Donofrio, R.S, L. Bestervelt and S.T. Bagley.  2010.  Quantitative Real Time PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Approaches for Enumerating Brevundimonas diminuta in Drinking Water.  Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology  DOI 10.1007/.10295-010-0738-1
  • Donofrio, R.S., M.C. Sanders, C. Hart, R. Bechanko.  2002.  Use of Selective Versus Non-selective Media for the Recovery of Chlorine Stressed Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas Species in Drinking Water.  World Health Organization Symposium on HPC Bacteria in Drinking Water.
  • Willhite, C C, Ball, G L, and Bhat, V S. 2013. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for ferric chloride in drinking water. Human Exper Toxicol. 32(2):260-274.
  • Willhite, C C, Ball, G L, and Bhat, V S. 2013. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for blended phosphates in drinking water. Human Exper Toxicol. 32(2):241-259.
  • Willhite, C C, Bhat, V S, Ball, G L, and McLellan, C J. 2013. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for potassium permanganate in drinking water. Human Exper Toxicol.
Food Safety
  • Donofrio RS.  NSF International: Professional Food Manager Certification Training.  Version 1.0.  2002.  Editorial Contributor.
  • Gadoth, A and Somers, NT. Melamine: Adulteration of infant formula, health impacts and regulatory response. In: Preedy, V.R. (ed.) Dietary and Nutritional Aspects of Bottle Feeding. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. June 2014.
  • Lampe, B.J. and English, J.C. 2016. Toxicological Assessment of Nattokinase Derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.  Food and Chemical Toxicology, Food and Chemical Toxicology pp. 87-99.
  • Saha R, Bestervelt LL, Donofrio RS. 2012. Development and validation of real-time TaqMan assay for the detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 used as a challenge organism in testing of food equipments. Journal of Food Science 77 (2) M150-M155.
  • Miller, T J, Phelka, A D, Tjalkens, R B, Dethloff, L A, and Philbert, M A. 2003. CI-1010 induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore precedes oxidative stress and apoptosis in SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res. 963:43-56.
  • Phelka, A D, Beck, M J, and Philbert, M A. 2003. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene inhibits mitochondrial complex II in rat and mouse brainstem and cortical astrocytes. Neurotoxicol. 24(3):403-415.
  • Tjalkens, R B, Phelka, A D, and Philbert, M A. 2003. Regional variation in the activation threshold for 1,3-DNB-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in brainstem and cortical astrocytes. Neurotoxicol. 24:391-401.
Metabolic Fate / PBPK
  • Corley, RA, English, JC, Hill, TS, Fiorica, LA, and Morgott, DA. 2000. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for hydroquinone. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 165:163-174.
  • English, J C and Deisinger, P J. 2005. Metabolism and disposition of hydroquinone in Fischer 344 rats after oral or dermal administration. Food Chem Toxicol. 43:483-493.
  • English, J.C. 2006. Metabolism and Toxicokinetics. In: Toxicology Testing Handbook; Principles, Applications, and Data Interpretation, 2nd Edition. Eds. Jacobson-Kram and Keller. Marcel Dekker, NY.
  • Poet, T S, Wu, H, English, J C, and Corley, R A. 2004. Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model. Toxicol Sci. 82:9-25.
Genetic Toxicology
  • Doepker, C L, Dumont, K W, O’Donoghue, J L, and English, J C. 2000. Lack of induction of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with hydroquinone. Mutagen. 15:479-487.
  • English, J C, Roser, K, and Mecchi, M. 2005. Conversion of tris(8-quinolinolato-N1, O8) aluminum and activity in bacterial reverse mutation assays. Mut Res. 582:95-104.
Epidemiology / Exposure Assessment
  • Finley, B L, Pierce, J S, Phelka, A D, Adams, R E, Paustenbach, D J, Thuett, K A, and Barlow, C A. 2012. Evaluation of tremolite asbestos exposures associated with the use of commercial products. Crit Rev Toxicol. 42(2):119-146.
  • Lampe, B, Park, S K, Robins, T, Mukherjee, B, Litonjua, A A, Amarasiriwardena, C et al. 2008. Association between 24-Hour urinary cadmium and pulmonary function among community-exposed men: The VA normative aging study. Environ Health Perspec. 116:1226-1230.
  • Phelka, A D and Finley, B L. 2012. Potential health hazards associated with exposures to asbestos-containing drywall accessory products: A state-of-the-science assessment. Crit Rev Toxicol. 42(1):1-27.
  • Williams, P R D, Phelka, A D, and Paustenbach, D J. 2007. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2000). J Toxicol Environ Health (Part B). 10:319-377.

Risk Assessment Risk Assessment

  • AD Lake, CE Wood, VS Bhat, BN Chorley, GK Carswell, Y Sey, EM Kenyon, B Padnos, TM Moore, AH Tennant, JE Schmid, BJ George, DG Ross, MF Hughes, JC Corton, JE Simmons, CA McQueen, and SD Hester. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a PPARα-Mediated Mode of Action. Toxicological Sciences. In Press, 2015.
  • Ball, G L, McLellan, C J, and Bhat V S. 2012. Toxicological review and oral risk assessment of terephthalic acid (TPA) and its and its esters: A category approach. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2012 Jan;42(1):28-67.
  • Barton, H A, Deisinger, P J, English, J C, Gearheart, J M, Faber, W D, Tyler, T R, Banton, M I, Teeguarden, J, and Anderson, M E. 2000. Family Approach for estimating reference concentrations/doses for series of related organic chemicals. Toxicol Sci. 54:251-261.
  • Bhat, V S, Ball, G L, and McLellan C J. 2010. Derivation of a melamine oral reference dose (RfD) and drinking water total allowable concentration. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 13(1):16-50.
  • Bhat, V S, Durham, J L, and English, J C. Derivation of an oral reference dose (RfD) for the plasticizer, di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (Palatinol® 10-P). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 70:65-74.
  • Bhat, V S, Durham, J L, Ball, G L, and English, J C. 2014. Derivation of an oral reference dose (RfD) for the non-phthalate alternative plasticizer, 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, di-isononyl ester (DINCH®). J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 17(2):63-94.
  • Bhat, V S, Hester, S D, Nesnow, S, and Eastmond, D A. 2013. Concordance of transcriptional and apical benchmark dose levels for conazole-induced liver effects in CD-1 mice. Toxicol Sci. 136(1):205-215.
  • English, J C, Bhat, V S, Ball, G L and McLellan, C J. 2012. Establishing a total allowable concentration of o-toluidine in drinking water incorporating early lifestage exposure and susceptibility.  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 64:269-284
  • Geter, D R, Bhat, V S, Gollapudi, B B, Sura, R, and Hester, S D. 2014. Dose-response modeling of early molecular and cellular key events in the CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis pathway. Toxicol Sci. 138(2):425-445. 
  • Hester, Eastmond, S DA and Bhat VS.  Developing toxicogenomics as a research tool by applying benchmark dose-response modeling to inform chemical mode of action and tumorigenic potency. Invited Contribution, Special Issue of the Inter J Biotechnol. In press. 2015.
  • Teeguarden, J G, Deisinger, P J, Poet, T S, English, J C, Faber, W D, Barton, H A, Corley, R A, and Clewell, H J. 2005. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and nbutyric acid. Toxicol Sci. 85:429-446.
  • Topping, D C, Bernard, L G, O’Donoghue, J L, and English, J C. 2007. Hydroquinone: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies with emphasis on neurobehavioral and nephrotoxic effects. Food Chem Toxicol. 45:70-78.
  • Willhite, C C, Ball, G B, and McLellan, C J.  2008.  Derivation of a bisphenol A oral reference dose (RfD) and drinking water equivalent concentration. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 11(2):69-146.
Microbial Control
  • Donofrio RS, Aridi S, Saha R, Bechanko R, Schaefer K, Bestervelt LL, Hamil B. 2013.Laboratory validation of an ozone device for recreational water treatment. Journal of Water and Health 11: 267-275.
  • Donofrio RS, Saha R, Bestervelt LL, Bagley S. 2012. Molecular cloning of B. diminuta for efficacy assessment of reverse osmosis devices. Journal of Water and Health 10: 278-287.
  • Saha R, Martin R, Donofrio RS.  2013. Efficacy of ozone treatment systems against microorganisms: current methodology and future approaches for evaluating novel disinfection technologies. Water Conditioning & Purification International 55(8): 24-28.
  • Saha R, Saha N, Atwain A, Donofrio RS. 2014. Evaluation of disinfection efficacy of ozone and chlorinated disinfectant against the biofilm of Klebsiella michiganensis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  Annals of Microbiology DOI: 10.1007/s13213-014-0804-4.
  • Saha, R., R. Bechanko, L.L. Bestervelt and R.S. Donofrio.  2010.  Evaluation of molecular techniques for identification and enumeration of Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257 in water purifier efficacy testing. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology DOI 10.1007/s10295-010-0917-0.
Environmental and General Microbiology
  • Donofrio RS, Saha N, Bechanko R, Hitt N, O’Malley K, Chaurnaski T, Bestervelt LL, Saha R. 2012.  Are we aware of microbial hotspots in our household? Journal of Environmental Health. 75 (2): 12-19
  • Donofrio, R.S.  1999.  Aerobic Non-Toxic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater.  Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.
  • Saha R, Ferrance C, Verghese B, Hong S, Donofrio RS. 2013.  Klebsiella michiganensis sp. nov., A New Bacterium Isolated from a Tooth Brush Holder. Current Microbiology 66: 72-78.
  • Saha R, Killian S, Donofrio RS. 2011. DNA Vaccines: A Mini Review. Recent Patents on DNA & Gene Sequences. 5: 92-96 Invited Article
  • Saha R, Saha N, Bestervelt LL, Donofrio RS.  2012.  Microbial Siderophores: A mini review. Journal of Basic Microbiology (in press) doi: 10.1002/jobm.201100552.
Industrial Microbiology
  • Saha R, Donofrio RS. 2012. The microbiology of metalworking fluids. Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology-Invited Article 94 (5) 1119-1130
  • Saha R., R.S. Donofrio, D. Goeres, and S. Bagley.  2011.  Rapid detection of rRNA group I Pseudomonads in contaminated metalworking fluids and biofilm formation by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology DOI: 10.1007/s00253-011-3647-y.
  • Saha, R., R.S. Donofrio and S.T. Bagley.  2010.  Detection of Microorganisms in Metalworking Fluid Using Molecular Techniques.  SIM News. May/June 2010:80-86.
  • Saha, R., R.S. Donofrio and S.T. Bagley.  2010.  Development of a Real-time Taq-Man Assay to Detect medocina sublineage Pseudomonas Species in Contaminated Metalworking Fluids. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 37:843-848 DOI 10.1007/.10295-010-0731-8.
  • Saha, R., R.S. Donofrio and S.T. Bagley.  2011.  Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Pseudomonas oleovorans susp. lubricantis using TaqMan-MGB assay in contaminated metalworking fluids. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation DOI 10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.10.013.